21 Kasım 2013 Perşembe

Tsunamis: Natural Hazards

Tsunamis: Natural Hazards

In December 2004, when a tsunami killed more than 200,000 people in 11 countries around the Indian Ocean, the United States was reminded of its own tsunami risks.
In fact, devastating tsunamis have struck North America before and are sure to strike again. Especially vulnerable are the five Pacific States -- Hawaii, Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California -- and the U.S. Caribbean islands.
In the wake of the Indian Ocean disaster, the United States is redoubling its efforts to assess the Nation's tsunami hazards, provide tsunami education, and improve its system for tsunami warning.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is helping to meet these needs, in partnership with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and with coastal States and counties.

Tsunami Definition
An ocean wave produced by a sub-marine earthquake, landslide, or volcanic eruption. These waves may reach enormous dimensions and have sufficient energy to travel across entire oceans.
The December 26, 2004 tsunami strikes Male (image by Sofwathulla Mohamed)

U.S. Tsunami Map
This map shows seven earthquake-generated tsunami events in the United States from the years 900 to 1964. The earthquakes that caused these tsunamis are: Prince William Sound, Alaska, 1964, magnitude 9.2; Chile, 1960, magnitude 9.5; Alaska, 1946, magnitude 7.3; Puerto Rico/Mona Rift, 1918, magnitude 7.3 to 7.5; Virgin Islands, 1867, magnitude undetermined; Cascadia, 1700, magnitude 9; and Puget Sound, 900, magnitude 7.5. Map not to scale. Sources: National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA, USGS
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Data Source: U.S. Geological Survey

Wisconsin State Song

Wisconsin State Song

"On, Wisconsin"

Official State Song
"On, Wisconsin"
Lyrics: Charles D. Rosa and J. S. Hubbard
Music: William T. Purdy
Adoption: 1959

Official State Ballad
"Oh Wisconsin, Land of My Dreams"
Lyrics: Erma Howland Barrett
Music: Shari Sarazin
Adoption: 2001

Official State Waltz
"The Wisconsin Waltz"
Lyrics: Eddie Hansen
Music: Eddie Hansen
Adoption: 2001

"On, Wisconsin" is a football fight song composed by William Purdy in 1909 and dedicated to the University of Wisconsin football team. Carl Beck co-wrote lyrics for the song with Purdy, and the rhythmic and rousing ditty became very popular among students. In 1913, Judge Charles Rosa and Mr. Hubbard were inspired to write new, more earnest lyrics. This made the song even more popular, but it was still not officially recognized as the state song until 1959. In 1993 Shari Sarazin set a sweet melody to a ballad written by her grandmother Erma Howland Barrett, and the resulting song, "Oh Wisconsin, Land of My Dreams," became Wisconsin's official state ballad in 2001. In addition to these two songs, the state also adopted an official waltz in the same year, "The Wisconsin Waltz," by Waupaca native Eddie Hansen.
"On, Wisconsin"
On, Wisconsin! On, Wisconsin!
Grand old Badger State!
We, your loyal sons and daughters,
Hail thee, good and great.
On, Wisconsin! On, Wisconsin!
Champion of the right,
"Forward", our motto,
God will give thee might!

"Oh Wisconsin, Land of My Dreams"
Oh Wisconsin, land of beauty,
with your hillsides and your plains,
with your jackpine and your birch tree,
and your oak of mighty frame.
Land of rivers, lakes and valleys,
land of warmth and winter snows,
land of birds and beasts and humanity,
oh Wisconsin, I love you so.

Oh Wisconsin, land of my dreams.
Oh Wisconsin, you're all I'll ever need.
A little heaven here on earth could you be?
Oh Wisconsin, land of my dreams.

In the summer, golden grain fields;
in the winter, drift of white snow;
in the springtime, robins singing;
in the autumn, flaming colors show.
Oh I wonder who could wander,
or who could want to drift for long,
away from all your beauty, all your sunshine,
all your sweet song?

Oh Wisconsin, land of my dreams.
Oh Wisconsin, you're all I'll ever need.
A little heaven here on earth could you be?
Oh Wisconsin, land of my dreams.
And when it's time, let my spirit run free
in Wisconsin, land of my dreams.

"The Wisconsin Waltz"

Music from heaven throughout the years;
The beautiful Wisconsin Waltz
Favorite song of the pioneers;
The beautiful Wisconsin Waltz.

Song of my heart on that last final day,
When it is time to lay me away.
One thing I ask is to let them play
The beautiful Wisconsin Waltz.

My sweetheart, my complete heart,
It’s for you when we dance together;
The beautiful Wisconsin Waltz.

I remember that September,
Before love turned into an ember,
We danced to the Wisconsin Waltz.

Summer ended, we intended that
our lives then would both be blended,
But somehow our planning got lost.

Memory now sings a dream song,
a faded love theme song;
The beautiful Wisconsin Waltz.


The Wisconsin Quarter

The Wisconsin Quarter

The Wisconsin quarter is the fifth of 2004 and the 30th in the 50 State Quarters® Program. On May 29, 1848, Wisconsin became the 30th state to be admitted into the Union. The Wisconsin design depicts an agricultural theme featuring a cow, a round of cheese, and an ear of corn. The design also bears an inscription of the state motto, "Forward."Agricultural Wealth
Wisconsin adopted the State motto, "Forward," in 1851, reflecting Wisconsin's continuous drive to be a national leader. Wisconsin is considered "America's Dairy Land" with production of over 15 percent of the nation's milk. Wisconsin also produces over 350 different varieties, types, and styles of award-winning cheeses—more than any other state. There are approximately 17,000 dairy farms, with just over one million cows that produce an average of 17,306 gallons of milk each, per year.Wisconsin is also a major corn-growing state. In 2002, Wisconsin led the nation in corn silage production and, with 391.5 million bushels produced, it ranked fifth in the production of corn for grain (shelled corn). State corn production contributed $882.4 million to the Wisconsin economy in 2003. Wisconsin is also a leading supplier of mint.Choosing the Design
In December 2001, Governor Scott McCallum appointed 23 people to the Wisconsin Commemorative Quarter Council to review and recommend candidate design themes. The state received over 9,600 suggestions, and the council narrowed the concepts down to six. After a statewide vote, Governor McCallum submitted three design concepts to the United States Mint: "Scenic Wisconsin, " "Agriculture/Dairy/Barns," and "Early Exploration and Cultural Interaction." In 2003, Governor Jim Doyle coordinated a statewide vote to select the final design, in which the "Agriculture/Dairy/Barns" design was the popular choice. This design was approved by the Secretary of the Treasury on October 9, 2003.
The 50 State Quarter ProgramSigned into law in 1997, the 50 States Commemorative Coin Program Act has become the most successful numismatic program in American history, with roughly half of the U.S. population collecting the coins, either in a casual manner or as a serious pursuit. The program produces five different reverse designs each year for ten years—each representing a different state—the order of which is determined by the order states were admitted to the Union. Design concepts are submitted to the Secretary of the Treasury by state governors for final approval. The obverse of each quarter is a slight redesign of the quarter's previous design. The cost to manufacture a quarter is about 5 cents, providing a profit of approximately 20 cents per coin. So far, the federal government has made a profit of $4.6 billion from collectors taking the coins out of circulation. In 2009, the U.S. Mint launched a separate program issuing quarters commemorating the District of Columbia and various U.S. territories.

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Proof Image
Uncirculated Image
Release Date:October 25, 2004
Design:Head of a cow
Wheel of cheese
Ear of corn
Designer:Alfred Maletsky
Engraver:Alfred Maletsky
Mintage:Denver Mint
- 226,800,000
Philadelphia Mint
- 226,400,000
- 453,200,000
Denomination:Quarter Dollar
Composition:Copper Nickel alloy
91.67% Cu
8.33% Ni
Weight:2.000 oz (5.670 g)
Diameter:0.955 in (24.26 mm)
Thickness:0.07 in (1.75 mm)
No. of Reeds:119
Data Source: The U.S. Mint.

Wisconsin State Gemstone

Wisconsin State Gemstone


Agate is a layered, multicolored variety of chalcedony. Chalcedony is a catch-all term that includes gemstones with microscopic crystal quartz structures, many also containing the mineral Mogánite. When these gemstones are concentrically banded, they are called fortification agates. Because agates occur in an infinite number of colors and patterns, no two are alike. Agate is composed of silicon and oxygen, with iron and aluminum oxides sometimes present.
Agate forms in rounded nodules or veins. Often, centuries of water have washed the outer surface away to reveal the pattern inside. When this is not the case, the crust must be cut open to view the stone’s inner beauty. Tiny quartz crystals called drusy often form inside the stone, especially in agates with hollow cavities. Since unpolished specimens of agate are dull, they are normally polished to bring out their full beauty.
Agate has hundreds of variety names, and new ones are introduced every year. Some of the more common varieties are fire, blue, blue lace, Mexican crazy-lace, Greek, Botswana, banded, carnelian, Lake Superior, thunder egg, rainbow, and turritella agates.
State Symbol
Although Wisconsin does not have an official gemstone, agate tells a great deal about the state’s geology. A billion years ago, a 1,243-mile (2,000-km) rift formed in the middle of what is now the United States. It continued to deepen and widen for perhaps 20 million years. When it stopped, lava poured out, creating vast basaltic deposits and leaving the long basin that is now Lake Superior. Some components of the molten basalt escaped as gas, leaving pockets. Over millennia, agates formed in these pockets. Today, beachcombers on Wisconsin’s Lake Superior shoreline often find these souvenirs of Midwestern geological formation.
Agate was also designated the state gemstone of Louisiana in 1976.
Name Origin
The name of this mineral comes from the site where it was originally reported, the Achates River, or Αχάτης in Greek, which is now known as the Dirillo River in Sicily, Italy. The Greek naturalist and philosopher Theophrastus discovered agates sometime between the 4th and 3rd centuries BCE. Agates were widely used in the ancient world.
Formation and Occurrence
Agates are normally associated with volcanic lava rocks, and are also found in some metamorphic rocks. Silica-rich water percolates through the rock, escaping as gas and depositing traces of the silica in the rock’s crevices. Layers are formed and eventually the rounded nodules called agates result.
Geographic Distribution
Agates are widespread, occurring in most areas of the world. In addition to the site where the mineral was first reported in Sicily, major agate locations include Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, Germany, Mexico, Morocco, Poland, the United States, and additional regions of Italy. The important gem region of Idar-Oberstein, in the Hunsrück Mountains in Rheinland-Pfalz, Germany, got its start as a source for agate thousands of years ago.
Because of its abundance, durability, and beauty, chalcedony was one of the earliest raw materials used by humans. The earliest recorded use was for projectile points, knives, tools, and containers such as cups and bowls. Early humans made weapons and tools from many varieties of chalcedony including agate, agatized coral, jasper, and petrified wood. Agate, along with petrified wood, was then elevated from functional use as tools, vessels, and weapons to gem status, being used for decorative and religious purposes.
From antiquity through the Renaissance period, collecting bowls made of agate was a popular hobby, especially among royalty. In fact, this hobby is what led to the growth of the gemstone industry in the Idar-Oberstein district of Germany, one of the world’s leading centers for gemstone cutting and trading. The town is still known for some of the world’s finest agate carving.
Today, agate is chiefly made into stones and used for ornamental purposes, such as in brooches and pins, pendants and charms, beads, mosaics, and dream catchers. Agate is one of the most varied and most popular gemstones. It also has industrial applications, including letter openers, inkstands, mortars, and pestles.
Agate has been believed for centuries to protect the wearer or holder of the stone from a wide variety of dangers and to bring good fortune. Because it has been known and used by humans for millennia, the supposed benefits of agate are innumerable and cross into many cultures.
Agate is the mystical birthstone for September and the birthstone for the zodiac sign of Gemini. Agate is given for the 12th and 14th wedding anniversaries.
State Gemstone
Agate Cabochon
State Gemstone
Orange Agate
State Gemstone
Polished Agate
State Gemstone
Agate Necklace
Group: Quartz
Chemical Formula: SiO2
Crystal Structure: Trigonal
Hardness (Mohs): 7; lower in impure varieties
Color: clear (in pure form)
Transparency: Transparent
Luster: Vitreous
Birefringence: +0.009 (B-G interval)
Pleochroism: None
Refractive Index: 1.544-1.553 - Dr +0.009 (B-G interval)
Density: 2.65 constant; variable in impure varieties
Streak: White
Cleavage: None
Fracture: Conchoidal
Some data courtesy of the Mineralogical Society of America
Author: World Trade Press

Wisconsin State Stone

Wisconsin State Stone

Red Granite

Granite is a hard, crystalline, plutonic igneous or metamorphic rock. It varies in composition depending on the parent rock that melts or partially melts to form it; the dominant components are quartz and feldspar, which form the lighter-colored parts of the rock. The darker parts may be biotite, hornblende, muscovite, pyroxene, or other minerals.
Granite’s medium-to-large crystal size gives it a granular appearance, thus its name, from the Latin granum. Granite is most often predominantly white, gray, pink, or red. Green and brown granites also occur. Wisconsin’s granite comes in a variety of colors, one of which is described as mahogany or ruby red as seen from a distance. At close range, purple and dark gray flecks are visible.
A State Symbol
Red granite’s importance to the geology, history, economy, and architecture of Wisconsin motivated its selection as Wisconsin’s state rock in 1971. The impetus to designate a state rock came from the Kenosha Gem and Mineral Society, whose wish was to foster greater awareness of geography among the state’s citizens.
Granite was produced in Wisconsin beginning in the 1850s in Amberg, Berlin, Montello, Utley, Marquette, Redgranite, Waupaca, and Wausau Counties. The red granite was first quarried in the 1890s by William Bannerman, a Scottish immigrant. The town of Redgranite sprang up around one of his quarries.
The main use of the red granite was as paving blocks for large cities such as Chicago and Milwaukee, where the then-prevalent brick or cedar paving blocks could not stand up to the amount of traffic. The granite was quarried in winter and carried 11 miles by horse-drawn sleighs to the railroad stockyard in the town of Berlin pending sale. This arrangement worked out well for the farmers, giving them work between growing seasons.
Granite is plutonic, meaning that it forms underground, and is at least sometimes igneous, or formed from magma. The underground origin allows slow cooling of the magma or parent rock and accounts for the medium to large crystal size characteristic of the rock.
Geologists have searched for means to explain how so much granite rises from the Earth’s lower crust where it originates into the upper crust. Tectonic uplift and surface erosion may lead to granite’s exposure at the surface; however, these forces are not sufficient to account for the emplacement of most granite. Major theories presume that granite moves upward through surface rocks while it is still relatively hot, either pushing the other rocks aside or filling gaps at fault lines.
Another disputed question is whether the majority of granite is actually metamorphic (silicified from softer rock). The prevailing theory remains that granite is primarily igneous.
Geographic Distribution
Wisconsin’s granite, widespread in the state, belongs to the Canadian Shield (also known as the Laurentian Plateau), the ancient nucleus of the North American continent. More than half a billion years old, this great body of crystalline Precambrian rock underlies all of Quebec, large extents of other Canadian territories, and part of Wisconsin. Much of the shield is now exposed.
Granite is one of the most favored stones for building construction because of its load-bearing capacity and resistance to weathering. It is also favored for other applications where toughness is essential, such as for breakwaters and riprap (shoreline protection). Granite aggregate is used for railroad ballast and as chip seal for road surfaces.
Two quarries in Marathon County continue to produce granite for dimension stone; production in 2005 was 2,550 tons with a value of $1.7 million. Five Wisconsin quarries produced 2.6 million tons of granite aggregate worth $15 million.
Famous Examples
Wisconsin red granite can be seen in many of the state’s buildings and monuments and has also been used for special applications elsewhere. The tomb of Ulysses S. Grant, in New York City, is made of Wisconsin red granite.
Red Granite Falls, actually a series of rapids, is an excellent place to see Wisconsin’s red granite in its natural environment. Probably the most famous granite outcrops in the nation are the towering formations of Yosemite National Park.
Hyderabad, India, and Aberdeen, Scotland, are two cities that are famous for using great quantities of locally quarried granite in their buildings. Aberdeen is nicknamed "the Granite City."
State Rock
Red Granite
State Rock
Polished Red Granite
State Rock
Ornamental Red Granite
State Rock
Grant's Tomb, in New York City, Is Made of Wisconsin Red Granite
Name: Granite
Chemical Formula: SiO2
Color: White, gray, pink or red
Author: World Trade Press

Wisconsin State Day, Motto, and Nickname

Wisconsin State Day, Motto, and Nickname

State Day
Wisconsin Day (observed each Wednesday of the third full week in September)
Date of Admission to United States
May 29, 1848
Ranking in State Admission
Former Designation
Northwest Territory
Indiana Territory
Illinois Territory
Michigan Territory
Wisconsin Territory
The area that is now the state of Wisconsin at one time or another in history was part of the Northwest Territory, Indiana Territory, Illinois Territory, and Michigan Territory. As a part of the Michigan Territory, many disputes over boundaries, territorial divisions, and political actions arose that added confusion to the issue of forming a separate Wisconsin Territory, and delayed such prospects from occurring.
On July 3, 1836, the organized incorporated Territory of Wisconsin was formed. For the next 12 years the territory flourished and began fulfilling the requirements for statehood. A state capitol was built in Madison, and the final political requirements were completed by March of 1848 with the adoption of a constitution. Finally, on May 29, 1848, Wisconsin became the 30th state of the Union.
"Forward" was adopted as the official state motto in 1851. This motto reflects the state’s ambitious drive to lead the way.
"America’s Dairyland," "America’s Bread Basket," "The Badger State"
Wisconsin is a national leader in dairy production and has earned the nickname "America’s Dairyland." The fertile soils and natural resources of Wisconsin make it one of the leaders in the nation’s food production industry. The nickname "America’s Bread Basket" refers to this wealth. The badger was adopted as the official state animal in 1957 and now appears on the state coat of arms, state seal, and state flag. The nickname "Badger State" refers not only to the animal’s official status, but also to its use as a college mascot.

-World Trade Press