28 Şubat 2013 Perşembe

Arizona: A Historical Timeline

Arizona: A Historical Timeline

16,000–10,000 BCE
The first Native Americans arrive in Arizona, making it one of the first inhabited areas in what is now the U.S. The earliest settlements are those of the Hohokam, Anasazi, and Mogollon.
2000 BCE
Native Americans introduce agriculture to Arizona.
1500 CE
The Pueblo flourish in Arizona, building large cliff dwellings, many of which still stand in present-day times. By 1300, the Apache and Navajo have migrated to the area from Canada.
When the Spanish first arrive, they encounter the Uto-Aztecan, Athapascan, and Yuman tribes.
Francisco de Coronado's expedition enters the region in search of the mythical Seven Cities of Gold.
Father Eusebio Kino founds three missions in Arizona. During the time, he teaches Native Americans different agricultural methods, and many grain and stock farms begin under his guidance.
Colonel Diego de Vargas, the Spanish governor of New Spain, makes a peaceful visit to a Hopi tribe. Although the tribe members swear allegiance to the king of Spain, they do not permit the Spanish to occupy their land.
Father Kino founds the San Xavier del Bac mission near present-day Tucson. It is destroyed by Apaches in 1770 and then rebuilt from 1783-1797.
A Yaqui native discovers silver in the area, creating Arizona's first mining boom. Controversy as to whether the Spanish king owns the silver deposits erupts. Under government direction, Juan Bautista de Anza senior, father of the famous explorer and soldier, seizes the silver until it's decided that miners should be allowed to keep their claims. Arizona's silver deposits play a large part in the decision of the U.S. to purchase the land in the 1850s.
The O'odham rebel against the area's strict Jesuit missionaries, killing two priests and more than 200 Spanish before surrendering.
After much resistance from the local Pima and Papago tribes, the first permanent European settlement in Arizona is established in Tubac. Colonists begin steadily entering the region, attracted by the recent discovery of deposits of silver around the Arizonac mining camp.
King Charles II of Spain expels all Jesuits from the Spanish Empire. The Jesuits from the Arizona missions are taken into custody and sent to Mexico City where they are put on ships to Europe. Franciscans seize control of the local missions.
A Spanish presidio is built at Tucson. The viceroy of New Spain issues instructions that natives requesting peace be placed in villages close to the presidio and given presents of inferior firearms and alcoholic beverages.
The Spanish devise a plan of setting up Apache "peace camps" and providing the Apache with rations so that they will not attack, allowing the Spanish to expand northward. During the last few years of Spanish rule, the total non-Indian population of Arizona hovered around 1,000, with 300 to 500 people at Tucson, 300 to 400 at Tubac, and less than 100 at Tumacacor.
(July 17) Wary of Spanish encroachment, Quechans attack Spanish settlers, surprising and slaughtering them during mass.
(September 16) The Mexican War of Independence from Spanish rule begins.
(August 24) Mexico wins its independence from Spain, and all of present-day Arizona becomes part of the Mexican State of Vieja California. Trappers and traders flock to the area when it is subsequently opened to U.S. settlement.
Yaqui leader Juan Banderas stages as series of revolts in Sonora in an attempt to realize his vision for a new pan-Native nation in the region.
The Apache rationing system is dismantled. As a result, Apaches abandon their camps near presidios and reinstate raids on settlers.
Texas declares independence from Mexico and claims much of the territory in the country's northern lands, including the eastern half of Arizona. The western portion stays in Mexican control.
A mining party reportedly discovers gold in the Superstition Mountains, but Apache Native Americans massacre the miners before they can stake their claim.
The Mexican-American War rages. U.S. Army General Stephen W. Kearny commands a squadron that travels across the Arizona region, which is largely considered superfluous by the U.S. government, to engage with the Mexican Army in California. Led by Kit Carson, Kearny and his men descend the Gila River and spend the next two months following its passage to the Colorado. This marks the first time U.S. troops encounter the Arizona desert.
(October) The troops of the Mormon Battalion become the first U.S. government representatives to meet with Mexicans in Arizona. They spar with soldiers at the Tucson presidio when they refuse to bypass the settlement. When Mexican commanders eventually concede, and the battalion is welcomed into Tucson by December 17, where it barters peacefully with residents.
The U.S. wins the Mexican-American War, gaining all of Arizona north of the Gila River. In exchange, the U.S. pays Mexico about $18 million—less than half the amount it had offered Mexico for the territory before the start of the war—and assumes $3.25 million of Mexico's debt.
The California Gold Rush leads as many as 50,000 miners through the region, causing a major boom in Arizona's population.
Together with most of present-day New Mexico, 70 percent of Arizona is organized into the New Mexico Territory.
(June 24) The United States buys 45,000 square miles of land from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase, including the region of present-day Arizona south of the Gila River.
Copper is discovered in region. Today, copper mining is a major industry in Arizona and accounts for two-thirds of the nation's total output.
The last of the Mexican Army leaves Tucson.
(March 16) The southern New Mexico Territory around Mesilla (now in New Mexico) and Tucson declares itself independent from the United States and joins the Confederacy.
(August 1) The Confederate Territory of Arizona, which consists of the portion of New Mexico Territory south of the 34th parallel north (encompassing southern Arizona), is declared following the Battle of Mesilla. The region is regarded as a valuable route for possible access to the Pacific Ocean, with the specific intention of joining southern California to the Confederacy.
After a U.S. Army officer hangs his brother and two nephews, Chief Cochise leads Apaches in an attack on soldiers at Apache Pass, beginning a 10-year war with settlers. In 1871 General George Crook uses other Apaches as scouts and informants to force Cochise's men to surrender and take Cochise into custody.
(March) Union troops re-capture the Confederate Territory of Arizona and return it to the New Mexico Territory.
(April 15) The Battle of Picacho Pass is the only major Civil War battle fought in Arizona. Three Union soldiers are killed during sparring between 12 Union cavalry patrol from California and 10 Confederate pickets from Tucson.
(February 24) Congress creates the U.S. Territory of Arizona with the passage of the Arizona Organic Act. Prescott is named the capital. Differing in location and size from the Confederate Territory of Arizona, it encompasses all of the present-day state of Arizona plus the southern tip of Nevada. The act abolishes slavery in the territory.
Kit Carson captures approximately 7,000 Navajo Native Americans in the Canyon de Chelly and forces them to leave Arizona. About half the natives who make the journey out of the region perish in what comes to be known as the Long Walk.
Phoenix is established as a hay camp to supply the United States Cavalry at Camp McDowell.
John Wesley Powell explores the Grand Canyon by boat during a three-month expedition. It is the first American passage through the canyon.
Chiricahua Apache medicine man Geronimo, often referred to as a chief, begins ten years of raids against white settlements when the U.S. government attempts to move his tribe from their traditional home in Arizona to a reservation in New Mexico.
(March 3) Congress passes the Desert Land Act to encourage and promote the economic development of the West. The act offers 540 acres of land to an adult married couple willing to pay $1.25 per acre and promising to irrigate the land within 3 years.
(October 26) Together with Doc Holliday, Wyatt Earp and three of his brothers stage the gunfight at the O.K. Corral in Tombstone, killing three suspected cattle rustlers. Perhaps the most famous gunfight in the history of the Old West, it comes to symbolize the struggle between law and order and open crime in the frontier towns of the time.
The U.S. Army asks White Mountain Apache scouts to campaign against their own people, resulting in a mutiny against the army soldiers. Three of the scouts are court-martialed and executed.
The U.S. government confines the Havasupai Native Americans to a 518-acre reservation in Havasu Canyon.
(September 4) Apache medicine man, often referred to as chief, Geronimo surrenders to army soldiers, and U.S.Native American fighting ends.
The Hopi Native Americans of Arizona begin to produce silver jewelry. Present-day Hopi are well known for the design and production of fine jewelry, especially that made of sterling silver.
President Franklin Roosevelt proclaims the Grand Canyon a National Monument. It eventually becomes a national park in 1919.
(February 14) Arizona becomes the 48th state admitted to the Union.
When Arizona becomes a state, women are granted the right to vote eight years before the passage of the 19th Amendment.
Sent from Germany to Mexico, the Zimmerman Telegram states that if Mexico allies with Germany, it will regain Arizona upon Germany's victory. The telegram is a major impetus for the U.S. entering World War I. The war creates a boom in Arizona's economy. Industries such as cotton, farming, and mining flourish.
(February 12) Arizona becomes the 31st state to ratify the 19th Amendment, granting women the right to vote.
The Southern Pacific Railroad connects Arizona with the eastern states, ending the state's period of isolation from civilization and trade. Many towns and mining camps spring up adjacent to the railroad.
American astronomer Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto at Lowell Observatory in Flagstaff.
(June 6) Construction begins on the Hoover Dam, located in the Black Canyon of the Colorado River on the border between Nevada and Arizona. Thousands of workers from across the country come to participate in the building, creating a boom for Nevada and Arizona.
Construction on the Hoover Dam, the largest concrete structure in the world at the time, is completed.
The Hoover Dam begins generating electricity, becoming the world's largest electric-power generating station. It is the first and most important link in a chain of dams, canals, and aqueducts built to harness the power of the Colorado River.
Arizona enforces right-to-work laws, which allow workers to decide whether or not to join or financially support unions.
Native Americans obtain the right to vote.
The U.S. Supreme Court maintains Arizona's right to large amounts of the Colorado River.
The London Bridge is moved to Lake Havasu City, Arizona, after being sold to U.S. oil company McCulloch Oil for $2,460,000. It now spans the Bridgewater Channel canal that leads from Lake Havasu to Thomson Bay, and has become Arizona's second-biggest tourist attraction after the Grand Canyon.
U.S. Congress divides the Hopi Reservation between the Hopi and Navajo Native Americans.
Newly elected governor Evan Mecham rescinds Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, charging the holiday had been illegally created by his predecessor, Bruce Babbit. Babbit had declared the holiday by executive order in 1986 after a bill to create it failed in the legislature.
Governor Even Mecham is impeached after allegations of money laundering and the appropriation of state funds to prop up his own struggling auto dealership. Rose Mofford succeeds him as governor, becoming the first woman to hold the office in Arizona.
Arizona voters reject a ballot initiative to make Martin Luther King, Jr. Day a state holiday. As a result, the NFL Players' Association moves Super Bowl XXVII out of the state. Voters finally approve the measure in 1992, and Tempe is awarded Super Bowl XXX in 1996.
(August 17) The governors of Arizona and New Mexico declare an emergency in the Mexico-bordering counties of their states. The governors cite violence, illegal immigration, and drug smuggling as reasons for the state of emergency.
Arizona passes SB1070, a controversial anti-illegal immigration law that allows police to detain people they suspect of being in the United States illegally.

Click to enlarge an image

12,000 BCE: Montezuma Castle ruins

1691: Eusebio Kino Bronze sculpture

1693: Ruins of Hopi Village of Walpi

1700: Mission San Xavier (photo taken 1887)

1736: Juan Bautista de Anza

1765: Jesuits Logo

1846: Battle of Veracruz, during the Mexican-American War

1846: General Stephen W. Kearny

1846: Kit Carson

1846: Map of Mexico, pre-Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1853: The Gadsden Purchase, shown in yellow with present-day state boundaries and cities

1861: Map of the Battle of Mesilla

1862: General George Crook

1864: Navajo on the "Long Walk"

1869: John Wesley Powell

1869: The Grand Canyon

1876: Geronimo

1881: Morgan Earp

1917: The Zimmermann Telegram

1930: Astronomer Clyde William Tombaugh

1936: Hoover Dam

1987: Bruce Babbit

Arizona Minerals Industry

Arizona Minerals Industry

Minerals Industry Report for Arizona

View/Print/Download the complete report in PDF format

In 2007, Arizona’s nonfuel raw mineral production was valued at $7.26 billion, based upon annual U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) data. This was a $510 million, or 7.6%, increase from the State’s total nonfuel mineral value in 2006, which then had increased by $2.4 billion, or up more than 55%, from that of 2005. In 2007, for the third consecutive year, Arizona led the Nation in total nonfuel mineral production value among the 50 States, accounting for 10.4% of the U.S. total. 
Arizona continued to be the Nation’s leading copper producing State in 2007 and accounted for 63% of the total U.S. copper mine production. Copper was the State’s foremost nonfuel mineral produced, accounting for nearly 73% of the total nonfuel mineral production value, followed in descending order of value by molybdenum, construction sand and gravel (with 9% of the State’s total value), cement (portland and masonry) (data withheld—company proprietary data), crushed stone (about 2% of the value) (table 1), and lime (data withheld—company proprietary data). In 2007, Arizona’s significant increase in value primarily resulted from the increased values of copper, molybdenum, portland cement, and crushed stone. A 3% increase in copper production, and a 4% increase in the average unit value of copper resulted in a 7%, or $340 million, increase in the commodity’s production value. The value of molybdenum production increased by more than $110 million, its total value up nearly 20% from that of 2006. Significant increases in unit values of portland cement and crushed stone resulted in a rise of their total values by about $30 million, and $24 million, respectively. Smaller yet significant increases also took place in the values (descending order of change) of silver, salt, and gold (value changes withheld— company proprietary data). The value of gemstones rose by 25%, up by $390,000 and had only a marginal effect on the overall change in the State’s total value. The largest decreases in value took place in the production values of construction sand and gravel (down by $10 million), lime, and crude gypsum (value change withheld—company proprietary data). 
In 2007, Arizona remained third in the production of molybdenum, construction sand and gravel, gemstones (gemstones ranking based upon value), and crude perlite and sixth in that of silver and dimension stone (dimension sandstone). The State decreased in rank in the production of three nonfuel mineral commodities—to 2d from 1st in pumice and pumicite, to 5th from 4th in zeolites, and to 10th from 9th in crude gypsum. Additionally, the State continued to be a significant producer of (in descending order of value) portland cement, crushed stone, and lime.

Arizona State Economic Account

Arizona State Economic Account

The Bureau of Economic Analysis, part of the U.S. Department of Commerce, annually compiles Economic Accounts reports at the national and state/regional levels. These reports consist of the following six elements:
  1. Per capita personal income in the state. Personal income is a more comprehensive measure of income than adjusted gross income, as used by the Internal Revenue Service. Among the elements it includes are tax-exempt income, the income of nonprofit institutions that primarily serve individuals, and property income earned on life insurance and annuity reserves of life insurance carriers.
  2. Total personal income (the sum of all personal income) in the state compared to the nation. A graph indicates the annual growth rate in the state and compares it both to the national figure and to the previous decade.
  3. Components of the state’s personal income. These statistics are compared to the national figures and to the previous decade.
  4. Gross domestic product (total production of goods and services) of the state.
  5. Gross domestic product (GDP) broken down by industry.
  6. Per capita GDP of the state compared to the region and the nation. Per capita GDP is obtained by dividing the GDP by the population of the state.

Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis (U.S. Department of Commerce)

Arizona State Agriculture

Arizona State Agriculture

This yearly state agriculture report offers the most recent data on 32 kinds of crops, from alfalfa to winter wheat. It indicates acreage planted, acreage harvested, yield, production, and, where available, price per unit and total crop dollar value. The methods of collecting the data are not as exacting as those used for the census (see below), but they have advantages for researchers who need the most up-to-date information.

For over two centuries, the U.S. government has recognized and responded to the importance of keeping accurate agricultural information. The nation's first agricultural survey was conducted by President George Washington. In 1791, Washington personally conducted a mail survey of farms in present-day Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, Virginia, and the District of Columbia to collect agricultural statistics on land values, crops, yields, livestock prices, and taxes. Washington sent the details of his survey to an English correspondent, Arthur Young.

Uses of Agricultural Surveys
The reports Washington sent Young reflect some of the same concerns farmers have today. He worried that prices weren't keeping up with the cost of raising crops. He worried that some farmers weren't taking care of their land. He worried about the cost of transporting agricultural goods to markets and improving those routes.
Washington's legacy of surveying and reporting on the state of agriculture in our country continued during the Civil War, when the U.S. Department of Agriculture collected and distributed crop and livestock statistics to help farmers assess the value of the goods they produced. At that time, commodity buyers usually had more current and detailed market information than did farmers. This circumstance often prevented farmers from getting a fair price for the goods they produced on their farms. Producers in today's marketplace would be similarly handicapped were it not for the information provided by the USDA?s National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS).
The report at right summarizes the latest census data, compiled in 2007. The survey is conducted every five years by the National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS), which is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. The NASS collects statistics at the national, state/territory, and county levels, making an effort to count every U.S. farm. For purposes of the census, any place that produced and sold $1,000 or more of agricultural products during the census year was considered a farm.
The first page of this summary answers the questions:
  • How many farms are in the state?
  • How big are the farms?
  • What do the farms produce?
  • How profitable are the farms and how much government subsidy do they receive?
The tables on the second page go into more detail. They show:
  • The value of the state's various agricultural products
  • The state's rank among states that grow the same crops
  • How much land is used for the most important crops and livestock items
  • The age, gender, and ethnicity of people who operate farms, and whether their primary occupation is farming.

Uses of the Agricultural Census
Among those who use the data are farm organizations; businesses; state departments of agriculture; elected representatives and legislative bodies at all levels of government; public and private sector analysts; the news media; and colleges and universities. With accurate agricultural statistics, public and private entities concerned with agriculture can create better conditions to support the productivity and success of the country's farming operations.

Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture (National Agricultural Statistics Service)

Arizona GDP by State and Industry

Arizona GDP by State and Industry

The data shown below are for 2008. Figures are in millions of current dollars.

All industry total245,952
  Private industries215,329
      Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting2,513
          Crop and animal production (Farms)1,958
          Forestry, fishing, and related activities555
          Oil and gas extraction1
          Mining, except oil and gas4,114
          Support activities for mining230
          Durable goods16,313
              Wood product manufacturing369
              Nonmetallic mineral product manufacturing1,321
              Primary metal manufacturing565
              Fabricated metal product manufacturing1,656
              Machinery manufacturing715
              Computer and electronic product manufacturing5,266
              Electrical equipment and appliance manufacturing273
              Motor vehicle, body, trailer, and parts manufacturing259
              Other transportation equipment manufacturing4,543
              Furniture and related product manufacturing582
              Miscellaneous manufacturing765
          Nondurable goods3,180
              Food product manufacturing1,131
              Textile and textile product mills161
              Apparel manufacturing31
              Paper manufacturing246
              Printing and related support activities498
              Petroleum and coal products manufacturing18
              Chemical manufacturing754
              Plastics and rubber products manufacturing341
      Wholesale trade14,147
      Retail trade20,384
      Transportation and warehousing, excluding Postal Service6,755
          Air transportation1,729
          Rail transportation738
          Water transportation11
          Truck transportation1,895
          Transit and ground passenger transportation317
          Pipeline transportation45
          Other transportation and support activities1,547
          Warehousing and storage471
          Publishing including software1,351
          Motion picture and sound recording industries152
          Broadcasting and telecommunications4,080
          Information and data processing services830
      Finance and insurance19,245
          Federal Reserve banks, credit intermediation and related services13,028
          Securities, commodity contracts, investments1,488
          Insurance carriers and related activities4,561
          Funds, trusts, and other financial vehicles168
      Real estate and rental and leasing38,107
          Real estate34,310
          Rental and leasing services and lessors of intangible assets3,797
      Professional and technical services14,852
          Legal services2,471
          Computer systems design and related services2,149
          Other professional, scientific and technical services10,231
      Management of companies and enterprises3,195
      Administrative and waste services10,996
          Administrative and support services10,290
          Waste management and remediation services706
      Educational services1,831
      Health care and social assistance17,701
          Ambulatory health care services10,614
          Hospitals and nursing and residential care facilities5,819
          Social assistance1,268
      Arts, entertainment, and recreation2,375
          Performing arts, museums, and related activities1,099
          Amusement, gambling, and recreation1,276
      Accommodation and food services8,373
          Food services and drinking places5,483
      Other services, except government4,858
      Federal civilian5,315
      Federal military2,646
      State and local22,660

Data Source: Bureau of Economic Analysis (U.S. Department of Commerce)